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Friday, February 23, 2024

Globalization Vs Nationalist Isolationism: A Realist Liberal Dilemma IRPJ = Intergovernmental Research and Policy Journal

But the one that seems to be at this historical juncture the most useful in effecting progressive change in the world. The question then becomes how to organize inter-national rules and inter-national solidarity, an effort in building true internationalism for everyone—not just globalism for elites. Internationalization is to perform at the international standards with our domestic labor and natural resources to compete for the international market.

Free trade, specialization, and global integration mean that nations are free to trade. Yet freedom not to trade is surely necessary if a trade is to remain mutually beneficial. While globalization is the rapidly growing integration of communication, financial, as well as a political ideology. Although internationalization is the process that results in globalization as firm movements could be said to be the cause of globalization. It explains the way in which trade and technology helped the world is becoming more connected and interdependent. Further, it also determines the economic and social changes which occur due to globalization.

The one being built as a result of coronavirus and global recession is one of tampered cooperation, barriers to trade, increased authoritarianism, and debilitating international institutions. It’s a century of the world which should not have any constraint in relation to communication, trade or, commutation, or goods movement, or it may be related to strategic thinking. In India, in 1991, the wave of the liberal economy started, opening the door for globalization in India. With this, various International brands put their footprints in the Indian Market, and many Indian brands started going globally, coming into the limelight of the international market. With these terms like globalization and internationalization were coined by economists and businessmen. Many people consider both terms the same; however, both globalization vs internationalization are different.

  1. The company introduced the special Teriyaki Burger in Japan and the McLobster in Canada to become a fan favorite among local buyers.
  2. It places the interests of the entire globe above the interests of individual nations.
  3. With these, foreign brands like MacDonald, Google, Citi Group, HSBC Inc, Starbucks, etc., started investing in India, and Indian brands like Tata, ITC, Reliance, etc. started expanding outside India and becoming eminent leaders in their area of work.
  4. Most automobile brands conduct R&D in their home country, like Germany for Volkswagen or Japan for Toyota.

For Spinoza, as defined in his Tractatus Politicus, imperium is nothing more than “the right determined by the power of the multitude.” The first step against neoliberal hegemony might be to shatter the preeminence of dominium. The trajectories of people like Röpke and Rougier hint to an unresolved tension amongst neoliberals, and one that Slobodian does not linger on enough, arguably. How come people that share a similar vision of the global economy—across a similar spectrum, at the very least—differ so much in their view of the world? How can neoliberalism make room for both Wilhelm Röpke and someone like Pascal Lamy, director-general of the WTO from 2005 to 2013, and who could not even remotely be suspected of harboring racial supremacist ideas? How come amongst neoliberals, equally committed to a free and encased global market, some are so attached to national sovereignty, like Brexit ideologue Douglas Carswell or Alternative for Germany’s Alice Weidel, while others, like European Union MP Guy Verhofstadt or philanthro-capitalist George Soros long for a post-national world?

Two examples of internationalization

That is, contemporary international trade is structured (through the massive movement of raw materials and of semifinished goods) so that national economies are tied together within the production process itself. The production of everything from cars and other motor vehicles, to electronics, to clothing, footwear, and fashion accessories involves dovetailing inputs from factories located in several different countries through the global trade in goods and services. In this process of deep global economic integration, trade and production become increasingly difficult to distinguish (Dicken 2003). This is a very different situation from that of the nineteenth century, and it makes all countries involved much more vulnerable than ever before to a breakdown, or even to any significant disruption, of the global trade/production system. At the same time, the long list of governments and foreign ministries embracing a more isolationist and nationalist worldview during this period of transition and as a result of processes predating it, might very well be increased once coronavirus is controlled.

Governments collaborate extensively to establish goals and outcomes of the globalization process. The difference between internationalization and globalization is that one refers to the global expansion of individual companies, while the other means the global expansion of entire economies. The internationalization of businesses has driven the global economy into a state of large-scale globalization. Want to tap into the surging demand for goods by breaking into international markets? Make sure to understand the difference between internationalization and globalization. However, whenever one tries to theorize the nation from the left and to appropriate it as an emancipatory political unit, many within its ranks raise an eyebrow.

Moreover, globalization is characterized by the interconnection of local private and public markets in one global arena, with respect to globally accepted rules and regulations. Although the causality and chronology of contemporary globalization is not disputed, its originality or uniqueness is. Globalization skeptics argue that the nineteenth-century global economy saw flows of investment capital and of international labor migrants that were proportionately larger in relation to global economic output or to the then existing world population than contemporary flows are. The nineteenth century also saw very rapid average annual increases in world trade, at periods on occasion larger than contemporary increases. Globalism is an ideology based on the belief that people, information, and goods should be able to cross national borders unrestricted, while globalization is the spread of technology, products, information, and jobs across nations. Internationalism is an important component of socialist political theory,[8][9] based on the principle that working-class people of all countries must unite across national boundaries and actively oppose nationalism and war in order to overthrow capitalism[10] (see entry on proletarian internationalism).

Globalization refers to merging the economic process of different nations to enable the exchange of ideas and resources. Globalization promotes the idea of free international trade and brings multiple nations together to mutually benefit developed, developing, and underdeveloped countries. Toyota has been one of the biggest automobile brands globally—thanks to its rapid and large-scale internationalization efforts in the 1960s and ‘70s. The automotive giant acquired local production centers to launch itself in several regional markets.

Head to Head Comparison between Globalization vs Internationalization (Infographics)

Although such skeptical arguments have some merit, they understate both the multidimensionality and variety of contemporary communications technologies and the absolute size of current trade, capital, and labor flows. Both the absolute size of the global economy and of the world population are much greater than they were in the nineteenth century. Most importantly of all, such globalization skeptics appear to confuse the “shallow” integration of nineteenth-century economies with the “deep” integration of the contemporary global economy.


The world as we know it is changing and will unequivocally become a different one once the current state of shock produced by the COVID-19 pandemic gives way to a “new normal”. Globalization which is the predominant characteristic of today’s world has greatly suffered during this transition period, as a result of processes started way before the health emergency was declared, and most probably come out of this period fairly weaken but not completely defeated. Mainly because the intricated network of trade, commercial, cultural, social, and political interdependence across nations and territories is not going to disappear.

These and other relevant questions pop into academic conversations during this unprecedented time and it is researchers’ job to try to come up with answers for them. The populist rights think it is coherent in choosing to curb all xenos rights—of both capital and humans. A vision of the nation by the left would grant unalienable xenos rights to human beings, freedom of movement and settlement for all those wishing to do so. This way, no risks of confusion with the crypto-fascists, who pretend to defend the downtrodden as long as they have the right name or the right passport, only to foster conflicts between people that would have every interest in uniting politically.

The latter notion recalls the original post-World War II understanding of globalism as a promotion of internationalism in response to the threat of nuclear warfare. Proposals for the international control of nuclear weapons were, for instance, often promoted and stigmatized as one-worldism. To what extent, one may ask, were mid-twentieth century efforts such as the creation of the United Nations and the formulation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the foundations for subsequent economic globalization or institutions and ideals that may help guide it.

In this genealogy of neoliberalism, a sweeping travelogue meandering through European intellectual history from the interwar period onwards, the roots are not to be found in a resurgent West’s fear of Soviet Communism during the Cold War, claims Slobodian, but rather in the more gentile central Europe of the late 1920s. The Austro-Hungarian empire has collapsed, and in a continent of new nations, a group of economists sees in this “world of walls” a menace internationalism vs globalism to an international market that should lead to convergence across nations. Always the magnanimous one, economist Ludwig von Mises envisions, as recounted in the book, a world in which European workers earn less, but also in which “Hindus and coolies” would earn more. Globalists are people who wish the process of globalization to continue, and indeed intensify, although they may also wish to have it politically regulated or controlled in various ways.

They have been periods of increased cooperation among nation-states and of strengthened international institutionalism and international law. They have been periods of sustained peace and economic prosperity; both indispensable elements for the commercial and human exchanges inherent to globalization to take place and shape, to a certain degree, world dynamics. Here, we can see that Globalisation is the result with which free and open trades are end result of global business markets. To achieve this result, various brands started putting their steps outside the nation and started delivering goods and services that are up to the mark of international standards, which is nothing but the internationalization of that brand or product.

Globalism and Globalization

It does not just encourage but also improves the interaction amidst different countries and audiences around the world. In short then, globalization as an economic process dates back no earlier than the mid-1970s, and its political, cultural, and security aspects have also all developed since that time. Greatly increased cross-cultural contact also makes different populations aware both of the ever-increasing inequalities among them—see 5 above—and of the different value orientations different cultures may embody. In this conception both global terrorism and the security threats it poses are themselves aspects of globalization (Wade 2001). ] as an appreciation for the diverse cultures in the world, and a desire for world peace.

(7) The more or less rapid weakening of the political power of the nation-state in the global economy, a weakening shown by the reduced ability of such states to control crucial economic variables that determine the welfare and standards of living of their populations (Martin and Schumann 1997). In the strict meaning of the word, internationalism is still based on the existence of sovereign state. Its aims are to encourage multilateralism (world leadership not held by any single country) and create some formal and informal interdependence between countries, with some limited supranational powers given to international organisations controlled by those nations via intergovernmental treaties and institutions. The fourth and last socialist international was founded by Leon Trotsky and his followers in 1938 in opposition to the Third International and the direction taken by the USSR under the leadership of Joseph Stalin. The Fourth International declared itself to be the true ideological successor of the original Comintern under Lenin, carrying on the banner of proletarian internationalism which had been abandoned by Stalin’s Comintern. A variety of still active left-wing political organizations claim to be the contemporary successors of Trotsky’s original Fourth International.

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